Space-time codes for high data rate wireless communication: performance criteria in the presence of channel estimation errors, mobility, and multiple paths
Space-time coding is a bandwidth and power efficient method of communication over fading channels that realizes the benefits of multiple transmit antennas. Specific codes have been constructed using design criteria derived for quasi-static flat Rayleigh or Rician fading, where channel state information is available at the receiver. It is evident that the practicality of space-time codes will be greatly enhanced if the derived design criteria remain valid in the absence of perfect channel state information. It is even more desirable that the design criteria not be unduly sensitive to frequency selectivity and to the Doppler spread. This paper presents a theoretical study of these issues beginning with the effect of channel estimation error. Here it is assumed that a channel estimator extracts fade coefficients at the receiver and for constellations with constant energy, it is proved that in the absence of ideal channel state information the design criteria for space-time codes is still valid. The analysis also demonstrates that standard channel estimation techniques can be used in conjunction with space-time codes provided that the number of transmit antennas is small. We also derive the maximum-likelihood detection metric in the presence of channel estimation errors. Next, the effect of multiple paths on the performance of space-time codes is studied for a slowly changing Rayleigh channel. It is proved that the presence of multiple paths does not decrease the diversity order guaranteed by the design criteria used to construct the space-time codes. Similar results hold for rapid fading channels with or without multiple paths. The conclusion is that the diversity order promised by space-time coding is achieved under a variety of mobility conditions and environmental effects.
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)