Differential space time block codes using nonconstant modulus constellations
We propose differential space time block codes (STBC) using nonconstant modulus constellations, e.g., quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), which cannot be utilized in the conventional differential STBC. Since QAM constellations have a larger minimum distance compared with the phase shift keying (PSK), the proposed method has the advantage of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gain compared with conventional differential STBC. The QAM signals are encoded in a manner similar to that of the conventional differential STBC. To decode nonconstant modulus signals, the received signals are normalized by the channel power estimated forgoing training symbols and then decoded with a conventional QAM decoder. Assuming the knowledge of the channel power at the receiver, the symbol error rate (SER) bound of the proposed method under independent Rayleigh fading assumption is derived, which shows better SER performance than the conventional differential STBC. When the transmission rate is more than 3 bits/channel use in time-varying channels, the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method with the channel power estimation outperforms the conventional differential STBC. Specifically, the posed method using the channel power estimation obtains a 7.3 dB SNR gain at a transmission rate of 6 bits/channel use in slow fading channels. Although the performance gap between the proposed method and the conventional one decreases as the Doppler frequency increases, the proposed method still exhibits lower SER than the conventional one, provided the estimation interval L is chosen carefully.
Hwang, CS; Nam, SH; Chung, J; Tarokh, V
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