Verify level control criteria for multi-level cell flash memories and their applications Coding and Signal Processing for Non-Volatile Memories
In 1 M-bit/cell multi-level cell (MLC) flash memories, it is more difficult to guarantee the reliability of data as M increases. The reason is that an M-bit/cell MLC has 2 M states whereas a single-level cell (SLC) has only two states. Hence, compared to SLC, the margin of MLC is reduced, thereby making it sensitive to a number of degradation mechanisms such as cell-to-cell interference and charge leakage. In flash memories, distances between 2 M states can be controlled by adjusting verify levels during incremental step pulse programming (ISPP). For high data reliability, the control of verify levels in ISPP is important because the bit error rate (BER) will be affected significantly by verify levels. As M increases, the verify level control will be more important and complex. In this article, we investigate two verify level control criteria for MLC flash memories. The first criterion is to minimize the overall BER and the second criterion is to make page BERs equal. The choice between these criteria relates to flash memory architecture, bits per cell, reliability, and speed performance. Considering these factors, we will discuss the strategy of verify level control in the hybrid solid state drives (SSD) which are composed of flash memories with different number of bits per cell. © 2012 Kim et al.; licensee Springer.
Kim, Y; Kim, J; Kong, JJ; Vijaya Kumar, BVK; Li, X
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