Asymptotic probability extraction for nonnormal performance distributions
While process variations are becoming more significant with each new IC technology generation, they are often modeled via linear regression models so that the resulting performance variations can be captured via normal distributions. Nonlinear response surface models (e.g., quadratic polynomials) can be utilized to capture larger scale process variations; however, such models result in nonnormal distributions for circuit performance. These performance distributions are difficult to capture efficiently since the distribution model is unknown. In this paper, an asymptotic-probability-extraction (APEX) method for estimating the unknown random distribution when using a nonlinear response surface modeling is proposed. The APEX begins by efficiently computing the high-order moments of the unknown distribution and then applies moment matching to approximate the characteristic function of the random distribution by an efficient rational function. It is proven that such a moment-matching approach is asymptotically convergent when applied to quadratic response surface models. In addition, a number of novel algorithms and methods, including binomial moment evaluation, PDF/CDF shifting, nonlinear companding and reverse evaluation, are proposed to improve the computation efficiency and/or approximation accuracy. Several circuit examples from both digital and analog applications demonstrate that APEX can provide better accuracy than a Monte Carlo simulation with 10 4 samples and achieve up to 10 × more efficiency. The error, incurred by the popular normal modeling assumption for several circuit examples designed in standard IC technologies, is also shown. © 2007 IEEE.
Li, X; Le, J; Gopalakrishnan, P; Pileggi, LT
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