Effects of Temperature on the Meiotic Recombination Landscape of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Although meiosis in warm-blooded organisms takes place in a narrow temperature range, meiosis in many organisms occurs over a wide variety of temperatures. We analyzed the properties of meiosis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in cells sporulated at 14°C, 30°C, or 37°C. Using comparative-genomic-hybridization microarrays, we examined the distribution of Spo11-generated meiosis-specific double-stranded DNA breaks throughout the genome. Although there were between 300 and 400 regions of the genome with high levels of recombination (hot spots) observed at each temperature, only about 20% of these hot spots were found to have occurred independently of the temperature. In S. cerevisiae, regions near the telomeres and centromeres tend to have low levels of meiotic recombination. This tendency was observed in cells sporulated at 14°C and 30°C, but not at 37°C. Thus, the temperature of sporulation in yeast affects some global property of chromosome structure relevant to meiotic recombination. Using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-specific whole-genome microarrays, we also examined crossovers and their associated gene conversion events as well as gene conversion events that were unassociated with crossovers in all four spores of tetrads obtained by sporulation of diploids at 14°C, 30°C, or 37°C. Although tetrads from cells sporulated at 30°C had slightly (20%) more crossovers than those derived from cells sporulated at the other two temperatures, spore viability was good at all three temperatures. Thus, despite temperature-induced variation in the genetic maps, yeast cells produce viable haploid products at a wide variety of sporulation temperatures.IMPORTANCE In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, recombination is usually studied in cells that undergo meiosis at 25°C or 30°C. In a genome-wide analysis, we showed that the locations of genomic regions with high and low levels of meiotic recombination (hot spots and cold spots, respectively) differed dramatically in cells sporulated at 14°C, 30°C, and 37°C. Thus, in yeast, and likely in other non-warm-blooded organisms, genetic maps are strongly affected by the environment.
Zhang, K; Wu, X-C; Zheng, D-Q; Petes, TD
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