Phosphorylation and calcium influx are not sufficient for the activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in U937 cells: requirement for a Gi alpha-type G-protein.
Differentiation with dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dBcAMP) of the human, premonocytic U937 cell line toward a monocyte/granulocyte-like cell results in the cell acquiring an ability to release arachidonate upon stimulation. In contrast, the calcium ionophore ionomycin was able to stimulate phospholipase C, as measured by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation, to equal extents in both undifferentiated and dBcAMP-differentiated U937 cells. The role and regulation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) in the production of arachidonate in these cells when either the chemotactic peptide fMLP or ionomycin are used as stimulus were investigated. The ionomycin- and fMLP-stimulated release of arachidonate were sensitive to the cPLA2 inhibitor arachidonyl trifluoromethylketone (IC50 values of 32 and 18 microM, respectively), but were not inhibited by E-6-(bromomethylene)-tetrahydro-3-(1-naphthalenyl)-2 H-pyran-2-one, a bromoenol lactone inhibitor of the calcium-independent phospholipase A2. These results, coupled with the inhibition of ionomycin-induced arachidonate production by electroporation of differentiated cells to introduce an anti-cPLA2, demonstrate that the cPLA2 is the enzyme responsible for arachidonate release in differentiated cells. SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analysis of differentiated cells showed the cells to contain both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms of cPLA2 (ratio of about 2: 3). Surprisingly, undifferentiated cells contain 30% more enzyme than differentiated cells and contain a higher percentage (approximately 75%) of the phosphorylated in the absence of stimulation. The inability of undifferentiated cells to produce arachidonate is not due to insufficient intracellular calcium concentrations since ionomycin induces large (820-940 nM) influxes of intracellular calcium in both differentiated and undifferentiated cells. This demonstrates that phosphorylation of cPLA2 andan influx of intracellular calcium are not sufficient to activate the enzyme to produce arachidonate. Instead, activation of a pertussis toxin-sensitive Gi alpha-type G-protein is required as evidenced by the production of arachidonate in undifferentiated cells stimulated with mastoparan, an activator of Gi alpha subunits, in combination with ionomycin. This activation of a Gi alpha-type G-protein is independent of modulations of adenylyl cyclase activity since cellular cAMP levels were not modulated upon treatment with mastoparan and ionomycin.
Burke, JR; Davern, LB; Gregor, KR; Todderud, G; Alford, JG; Tramposch, KM
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)