Differentiation of U937 cells enables a phospholipase D-dependent pathway of cytosolic phospholipase A2 activation.
Treatment with dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dBcAMP) of the human, premonocytic U937 cell line results in differentiation toward a monocyte/granulocyte-like cell. This differentiation enables the cell to activate cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) to release arachidonate upon stimulation. In contrast, undifferentiated cells are unable to release arachidonate even when stimulated with calcium ionophores. In the present research, a role for phospholipase D (PLD) in the regulation of cPLA2 was shown based on a number of observations. First, the ionomycin- and fMLP-stimulated production of arachidonate in differentiated cells was sensitive to ethanol (2% (v/v)). Ethanol acts as an alternate substrate in place of water for PLD producing phosphatidylethanol (PEt) instead of phosphatidic acid. Indeed, ionomycin stimulation of differentiated cells produced a 14-fold increase in PEt levels. Further evidence for the involvement of PLD in the regulation of cPLA2 came from the observation that the stimulated production of diacylglycerol (for which phosphatidic acid is a major source) was greatly diminished in undifferentiated cells as compared to differentiated cells. Moreover, the normally deficient activation of cPLA2 in undifferentiated cells could be stimulated to release arachidonate if the cells were electroporated in the presence of GTP[gamma]S and MgATP. This treatment stimulates phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) production which appears to activate PLD and cPLA2 in subsequent steps. The phosphatidic acid (and diacylglycerol derived from phosphatidic acid) appears to greatly regulate the action of cPLA2 by an unknown mechanism, and undifferentiated cells lack the ability to stimulate PLD activity due to a dysfunction of PIP2 production.
Burke, JR; Davern, LB; Gregor, KR; Owczarczak, LM
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