Plasma glutathione peroxidase and its relationship to renal proximal tubule function.
Selenium-dependent extracellular glutathione peroxidase (E-GPx) is found in plasma and other extracellular fluids. Previous studies have indicated that patients with chronic renal failure on dialysis have low plasma GPx activity. In this study, dialysis patients had approximately 40% of control plasma GPx activity, while anephric individuals had lowest plasma GPx activities ranging from 2 to 22% of control. The residual plasma GPx activity in anephric individuals could be completely precipitated by anti-E-GPx antibodies, indicating that all plasma GPx activity can be attributed to E-GPx in both normal and anephric individuals. Plasma GPx activity rises rapidly following kidney transplantation, often reaching normal values within 10 days. The plasma GPx activity in some transplanted patients rises to levels higher than the normal range, followed by a return to the normal range. Since E-GPx in the kidney is primarily synthesized in the proximal tubules, we investigated whether nephrotoxic agents known to disrupt proximal tubule function also affected plasma GPx activity. The beta-lactam antibiotic cephaloglycin rapidly caused a decrease in plasma GPx activity in rabbits. In addition, the chemotherapeutic agent ifosfamide caused a decrease in plasma GPx activity in pediatric osteosarcoma patients. Fanconi syndrome associated with either ifosfamide therapy or valproic acid therapy also caused a decrease in plasma GPx activity. Thus plasma GPx activity is related to kidney function and is decreased in certain situations where nephrotoxic drugs are administered. Monitoring plasma GPx activity may have predictive value in evaluating the function of transplanted kidneys or in predicting those patients particularly at risk of nephrotoxic injury associated with certain medications.
Whitin, JC; Tham, DM; Bhamre, S; Ornt, DB; Scandling, JD; Tune, BM; Salvatierra, O; Avissar, N; Cohen, HJ
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