Two serologic markers to monitor the engraftment, growth, and treatment response of human leukemias in severe combined immunodeficient mice.
We have investigated human lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes and human nuclear matrix protein 41/7 (NMP 41/7) as potential serologic markers to monitor the course of human leukemia in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Following the transplantation of 10(6) human acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) Nalm-6 cells, human specific LDH isoenzymes were measurable in the serum of SCID mice as early as 7 days after transplantation, although serum total LDH increased in some animals as early as 5 days after transplantation. Human NMP 41/7 was measurable in all animals at day 15 after leukemia cell injection. Serum levels of total LDH, human specific LDH and NMP 41/7 increased progressively over time, reaching total LDH levels as high as 50,000 U/L at day 25 after transplantation. To determine whether the levels of LDH and NMP 41/7 in serum were a reflection of human tumor burden, we studied these serologic markers in SCID mice bearing measurable subcutaneous human neuroblastoma tumors, or compared the serum levels of these markers with the number of human leukemia CD10+ cells in the bone marrow of the SCID mice. The serum levels of total LDH, human specific LDH isoenzymes, and NMP 41/7 correlated well with tumor burden, and they drastically decreased or disappeared from serum after the human leukemia or neuroblastoma cells were selectively killed with a single intravenous (IV) injection of 1 to 3 micrograms diphtheria toxin (DT) (the cellular receptor for DT is present on human cells, but not on mouse cells). Paraplegic mice with central nervous system leukemia completely recovered after DT treatment. We conclude that measurements of serum levels of total LDH, human LDH isoenzymes, and NMP 41/7 are sensitive, quantitative, rapid, and easy to perform serologic methods useful to monitor the engraftment, progression, and treatment response of human leukemia in SCID mice.
Arguello, F; Sterry, JA; Zhao, YZ; Alexander, MR; Shoemaker, RH; Cohen, HJ
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