Activation of the guinea pig granulocyte NAD(P)H-dependent superoxide generating enzyme: localization in a plasma membrane enriched particle and kinetics of activation.
The subcellular localization, kinetics of activation, and substrate specificity of the guinea pig granulocyte superoxide (O2-) generating system was investigated. Membrane-enriched particles (podosomes) were made from granulocytes by mild sonication and differential centrifugation. These podosomes are enriched threefold for known plasma membrane markers, 5'-nucleotidase, and adenylate cyclase. Podosomes made from resting granulocytes have very little NAD(P)H-dependent O2- production. Podosomes made from cells stimulated with digitonin are equally enriched for membrane markers but have a 15- to 20-fold increase in NAD(P)H-dependent O2- production. The KmAPP for NADPH is one-tenth that for NADH, but the Vmax is the same. The kinetics of digitonin-stimulated whole-cell O2- production parallel the changes in enzyme activity in these podosomes. Temperature affects both the rate and extent of activation of this enzyme. The pH optimum for the enzyme, the pH optimum for activation, and the pH optimum for whole-cell O2- production are all 7.5. Enzyme activity is increased if the cells are treated with glucose and cyanide, inhibited in cells treated with 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG), and requires the presence of calcium for activation. These effects are similar to those found for granulocyte O2- production. Thus, the granulocyte O2- generating enzyme system is located on a fraction enriched for plasma membrane markers, and the kinetics of granulocyte production are directly related to the rate and amount of activation of this enzyme.
Cohen, HJ; Chovaniec, ME; Davies, WA
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