Efficacy of Particulated Juvenile Cartilage Allograft Transplantation for Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus.
BACKGROUND: Particulated juvenile cartilage allograft transplantation (PJCAT) is a novel treatment option for osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLTs). It is typically employed as a salvage procedure after initial debridement and microfracture has failed as it is theorized to deliver viable hyaline cartilage. We hypothesized that PJCAT would be a safe and effective treatment option for OLTs. METHODS: This is a retrospective case-control study of patients who underwent PJCAT for the treatment of OLTs at a single academic institution. Failure of the procedure was defined as no change or worsening of symptoms and/or the need for a subsequent cartilage restoration procedure. Variables recorded included preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) area and volume, intraoperative size, etiology, lesion location, sex, age, body mass index (BMI), history of prior surgery, American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society score, and foot and ankle outcome score. Fifteen patients completed a minimum of 12 months of follow-up (mean, 34.6 months). RESULTS: The failure rate of PJCAT in this series was 40% (6/15). Preoperative MRI area and intraoperative OLT size along with male sex were predictive of failure ( P < .05). Age, BMI, etiology, technique (open vs arthroscopic), history of prior surgery, and location of lesion were not predictors of failure in this limited series ( P > .05). Patients with lesions greater than 125 mm2 area had a significant increased risk of clinical failure ( P < .05). Functional outcome scores were significantly better at final follow-up in the patients who had undergone successful treatment vs those who did not. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate the association of preoperative MRI lesion area, intraoperative lesion size, and male sex as risk factors for failure of PJCAT setting of an already difficult to treat pathology. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, retrospective case series.
Dekker, TJ; Steele, JR; Federer, AE; Easley, ME; Hamid, KS; Adams, SB
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