Planning strategies for inter-fractional robustness in pancreatic patients treated with scanned carbon therapy.
Managing inter-fractional anatomy changes is a challenging task in radiotherapy of pancreatic tumors, especially in scanned carbon-ion delivery. This treatment planning study aims to focus on clinically feasible solutions, such as the beam angle selection and margin design to increase the robustness against inter-fractional uncertainties.This study included 10 patients with weekly 3D-CT imaging and physician-approved Clinical Target Volume (CTV). The study was directed to keep the CTV-coverage using six beam angle configurations in combination with different Internal Target Volume (ITV) concepts. These were: geometric-margin (symmetric 3 and 5 mm margin); range-equivalent margins with an isotropic HU replacement; and to evaluate the need of asymmetric margins the water-equivalent range path (WEPL) was determined per patient from the set of CTs. Plan optimization and forward dose calculation in each week-CT were performed with the research treatment planning system TRiP98 and the plan quality evaluated in terms of CTV coverage (V95CTV) and homogeneity dose (HCTV = D5-D95).The beam geometry had a substantial impact on the target irradiation over the treatment course, with the single posterior or two beams showing the best average coverage of the CTV. The use of geometric margins for the more robust beam geometries showed acceptable results, with a V95CTV of (99.2 ± 1.2)% for the 5 mm-margin. For the non-robust configurations, due to substantial changes in the radiological depth, the use of this margin results in a V95CTV that might be below 80%, only showing improvement when the range changes are included.Selection of adequate beam configurations and treatment margins in ion-beam therapy of pancreatic tumors is of great importance. For a single posterior beam or two beam configurations, application of geometrical margins compensate for dose degradation induced by inter-fractional anatomy changes for the majority of the analyzed treatment fractions.
Batista, V; Richter, D; Combs, SE; Jäkel, O
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