Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of a Home Vegetable Gardening Intervention among Older Cancer Survivors Shows Feasibility, Satisfaction, and Promise in Improving Vegetable and Fruit Consumption, Reassurance of Worth, and the Trajectory of Central Adiposity.
BACKGROUND: Holistic approaches are sought to improve lifestyle behaviors and health of cancer survivors long term. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to explore whether a home-based vegetable gardening intervention is feasible and whether it improves diet and other health-related outcomes among older cancer survivors. DESIGN: We conducted a feasibility trial in which cancer survivors were randomized to receive a year-long gardening intervention immediately or to a wait-list control arm. Home visits at baseline and 1 year assessed physical performance, anthropometric indices, behavioral and psychosocial outcomes, and biomarkers. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Participants included 46 older (aged 60+ years) survivors of locoregionally staged cancers across Alabama from 2014 to 2016. Forty-two completed 1-year follow-up. INTERVENTION: Cooperative extension master gardeners delivered guidance to establish three seasonal vegetable gardens at survivors' homes. Plants, seeds, and gardening supplies were provided. OUTCOMES: Primary outcomes were feasibility targets of 80% accrual and retention, and an absence of serious adverse events; other outcomes were secondary and explored potential benefits. STATISTICAL ANALYSES: Baseline to follow-up changes were assessed within and between arms using paired t, McNemar's, and χ2 tests. RESULTS: This trial proved to be safe and demonstrated 91.3% retention; 70% of intervention participants rated their experience as "excellent," and 85% would "do it again." Data suggest significantly increased reassurance of worth (+0.49 vs -0.45) and attenuated increases in waist circumference (+2.30 cm vs +7.96 cm) in the gardening vs control arms (P=0.02). Vegetable and fruit consumption increased by approximately 1 serving/day within the gardening arm from baseline to follow-up (mean [standard error]=1.34 [1.2] to 2.25 [1.9] servings/day; P=0.02)] compared to controls (1.22 [1.1] to 1.12 [0.7]; P=0.77; between-arm P=0.06). CONCLUSIONS: The home vegetable gardening intervention among older cancer survivors was feasible and suggested improvements in vegetable and fruit consumption and reassurance of worth; data also suggest attenuated increases in waist circumference. Continued study of vegetable gardening interventions is warranted to improve health, health behaviors, and well-being of older cancer survivors.
Demark-Wahnefried, W; Cases, MG; Cantor, AB; Frugé, AD; Smith, KP; Locher, J; Cohen, HJ; Tsuruta, Y; Daniel, M; Kala, R; De Los Santos, JF
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