Ocular manifestations of systemic arterial hypertension
Hypertension is a major cause of cardiovascular disease and is also a risk factor for various ocular diseases. Hypertension exerts its effects on the retinal, choroidal and optic nerve circulations. In this article, the various ocular manifestations of hypertension are reviewed. Retinal microangiopathy is strongly associated with blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular diseases, including stroke, cognitive decline and heart disease. Higher blood pressure is an important risk factor for the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy and has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of retinal vein occlusion, retinal artery occlusion, retinal arteriolar emboli and macroaneurysm. Hypertension has also been inconsistently linked with glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration. The management of patients with these ocular conditions should include appropriate assessment and management of hypertension. © 2006, Future Drugs Ltd. All rights reserved.
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