From bench to market: commercialization of photoacoustic imaging
© 2017, Editorial Board of Journal of Infrared and Laser Engineering. All right reserved. Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) or optoacoustic imaging, the modern application of an ancient physical discovery to biomedical imaging, is without doubt one of the most exciting imaging technologies that has drawn increasing attention from biomedical specialists. In PAI, the rich contrast of optical excitation is seamlessly combined with the high spatial resolution and large penetration depth of ultrasonic detection to produce clear images of optically scattering biological tissues. As a complementary imaging modality that surpasses the territory of traditional microscopic optical imaging, PAI has been explored for numerous biomedical studies, and hence enthusiastically embraced by researchers around the globe who have attested to its unique imaging capabilities, namely the deep penetration and functional sensitivity. Not surprisingly, as the market clearly sees the promise, the commercial production of PAI systems has grown apace with the technological advancements and clinical applications. The adoption of commercial PAI in research and clinical settings has however seen difficulties, majorly due to costs, regulatory blocks, and competition with mainstream technologies. Here, from a practical standpoint, a wide range of commercial PAI systems currently available in the market were introduced, their advantages and disadvantages were analyzed, and the design considerations for targeted applications were emphasized. The key technological, logistical, and clinical issues were also discussed that need to be solved to accelerate the technology translations. By doing so, it is hoped that a clearer picture of the future commercialization of PAI for clinicians, researchers, and industrial entrepreneurs will be presented.
Saxena, Y; Kim, C; Yao, J
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