The value in Atlantic Basin refinery transactions is assessed against the context of the global economic downturn. The study finds that Atlantic Basin refiners will face pressures from new export oriented refineries being built in Asia, the Middle East and the north of Brazil. New competitive threats to refining include biofuels and alternatively fuelled vehicles, both of which will reduce demand for conventional refined fuels. East Coast refiners will continue to be pressured by the transatlantic gasoline arbitrage and the need of European refiners to export surplus gasoline as they aim to maximise their distillate output. Hydrocracking refineries should be better positioned to compete in the European markets and as an example, Lukoil's 45% stake in the Vlissingen refinery should position it to refine Russian crude oil and supply distillates in the Northwest European market.