Noninvasive optical spectroscopy for identification of non-melanoma skin cancer: Pilot study.
OBJECTIVE: Optical spectroscopy offers a noninvasive alternative to biopsy as a first-line screening tool for suspicious skin lesions. This study sought to define several optical parameters across malignant and benign tissue types. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective pilot trial utilizing the Zenalux IM1 optical spectroscopy device from April 2016 to February 2017. For each skin lesion, provider pre-biopsy probability of malignancy was compared to histolopathologic diagnosis. Optical data were characterized across basal cell carcinoma (BCC; n = 9), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; n = 5), actinic keratosis (AK; n = 4), scar tissue (n = 6), nevus (n = 2), and neurofibroma (NF; n = 1). Across all patients, agreement was determined between control measurements collected adjacent to the lesion and from the upper extremity. METHODS: Prospective single center pilot study. The optical properties of 27 cutaneous lesions were collected from 18 adult patients presenting to Otolaryngology and Dermatology clinics with suspicious skin lesions warranting biopsy. Spectroscopy measurements were recorded for each lesion: two at the lesion site, two at an adjacent site (internal control), and one at the central medial upper extremity (arm control). Variables of interest included absolute oxygenated hemoglobin (Hb), Hb saturation, total Hb concentration, and Eumelanin concentration. For each lesion, internal control averages were subtracted from lesion averages to provide delta parameter values, and lesion averages were divided by internal control averages to provide ratio parameter values. RESULTS: Mean percent difference between pre-biopsy probability of malignancy and histology was 29%, with a difference of 75% or greater seen in 5 of 25 lesions. Mean values for BCC, SCC, AK, and scar tissue varied most between extracted mean reduced scatter estimate (μa'; cm- ) delta values (BCC: -2.2 ± 3.8; SCC: -3.9 ± 2.0; AK: -3.3 ± 4.2, Scar: -1.7 ± 1.2) and total Hb (µM) ratio (BCC: 2.0 ± 3.3; SCC: 3.0 ± 1.3; AK: 1.1 ± 0.6; Scar: 1.4 ± 1.1). Agreement between local and arm controls was poor. CONCLUSION: This pilot trial utilizes optical spectroscopy as a noninvasive method for determining cutaneous lesion histology. Effect sizes observed across optical parameters for benign and malignant tissue types will guide larger prospective studies that may ultimately lead to prediction of lesional histology without need for invasive biopsy. Lasers Surg. Med. 50:246-252, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Carpenter, DJ; Sajisevi, MB; Chapurin, N; Brown, CS; Cheng, T; Palmer, GM; Stevenson, DS; Rao, CL; Hall, RP; Woodard, CR
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