Understanding the Relationship Between Male Gender Socialization and Gender-Based Violence Among Refugees in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Gender-based violence (GBV) in humanitarian emergencies is progressively recognized as a global public health problem. Detrimental gender norms influence male perpetrated GBV against women, and social and structural contexts of forced migration and camp resettlement contribute to problematic gender norm development. The review sought to elucidate the dynamics that link gender socialization among male youth in sub-Saharan Africa with violent sexual behaviors. Two concepts were explored: (1) male gender socialization in sub-Saharan Africa related to GBV perpetration patterns and (2) the effect of forced migration on male socialization and GBV. We reviewed articles using a standard systematic review methodology, searching academic databases for peer-reviewed articles, and contacting experts for gray literature. Our initial search identified 210 articles. We manually reviewed these, and 19 met the review inclusion criteria. We identified 20 variables from the first concept and 18 variables from the second. GBV perpetration by male youth is positively associated with social pressures as well as cultural and religious beliefs. Amid forced migration, personal, societal, and cultural preexisting gender inequalities are often amplified to encourage GBV perpetration. The literature revealed aspects of culture, language, role modeling, religion, and the context of violence as important factors that shape young men's perspectives regarding the opposite sex and gender relations as well as sexual desires and dominance. Overall, though, literature focusing on male socialization and GBV prevention is limited. We made recommendations for future studies among refugee male youth in order to better understand these relationships.
Fry, MW; Skinner, AC; Wheeler, SB
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