The relationship of dietary fish intake to diabetic retinopathy and retinal vascular caliber in patients with type 2 diabetes.
In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the association of dietary fish intake with varying severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and retinal vascular caliber in Asians with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 357 Asians (median age: 58 years; 31% women; 78% Chinese) were recruited from a tertiary eye care institution in Singapore. Fish consumption was evaluated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Digital retinal photographs assessed for DR severity and retinal vascular caliber. Ordered logistic and linear regression models were used to investigate the association of fish intake with DR severity and vascular caliber. Increasing frequency of fish consumption was significantly associated with lower odds of having severe DR (odds ratio [OR] = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.84-0.99 per 1-unit increase of fish intake; P = 0.038). Among those with no retinopathy, persons in quartile 4 fish intake had a wider retinal vascular caliber for arteriolar (β = 22.27 µm, 95% CI: 12.64-31.90; P-trend < 0.001) and venular (β = 32.00 µm, 95% CI: 17.56-46.43; P-trend < 0.001), than those in quartile 1 fish intake. Persons with higher fish intake had a decreased likelihood of having severe DR. In diabetics without retinopathy, higher fish intake was associated with wider retinal vascular caliber. Future research is needed to reinforce the direction of the casualty.
Chua, J; Chia, A-R; Chee, ML; Man, REK; Tan, GSW; Lamoureux, EL; Wong, TY; Chong, MF-F; Schmetterer, L
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