Fetal endoscopic surgery: lessons learned and trends reviewed.
PURPOSE: Fetal surgery is performed increasingly with minimal access approaches. The authors report their experience with fetal endoscopic procedures (fetendo) with emphasis on changing techniques and outcome trends. METHODS: All fetal endoscopic cases performed at a single institution from January 1996 to August 2001 were reviewed (n = 66). Cases were examined with respect to year performed, type of operation, operative data, and outcome. RESULTS: Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (26 cases) and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (35 cases) were the most common diseases treated. From 1996 to 2001, there was a decrease in average operating time (256 to 127 minutes [P =.0006]), number of ports utilized (3.8 to one [P =.00001]), pump volume (28.7 to 2.7 L [P =.00001]), and estimated blood loss (408 to 29 mL [P =.008]). In addition, port size changed from 10 mm to 5 mm. Chorioamniotic separation (31 of 66), premature rupture of membranes (32 of 66), chorioamnionitis (12 of 66), and fetal death (10 of 66) continued to be significant complications. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal endoscopic surgery over the last 6 years has evolved toward shorter operating time, the use of smaller and fewer ports, decreased pump fluid exchange, and decreased blood loss, with the types of cases centered on twin-twin transfusion syndrome and congenital diaphragmatic hernia.
Fowler, SF; Sydorak, RM; Albanese, CT; Farmer, DL; Harrison, MR; Lee, H
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