Intravenous midazolam for sedation of children undergoing procedures: An analysis of age- and procedure-related factors
Objective: This study was performed to determine the doses of midazolam used for sedation during procedures in children, and the frequency of adverse events. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of data collected for a prospective study of flumazenil in children who had received midazolam for a procedure (n = 91, 1-17 years). Results: Practitioners used a wide range of total midazolam doses (0.03-0.6 mg/kg); mean doses ranged from 0.09 ± 0.06 mg/kg in adolescents to 0.26 ± 0.13 mg/kg in toddlers (P < 0.001). Opioids were also used in 84% of patients. Twenty-six percent of children with normal lungs, most of whom had received relatively high opioid doses, developed decreased oxygen saturation (as low as 65%) after sedation. Other adverse events included airway obstruction (n = 3) and vomiting (n = 1). Conclusions: The frequent choice of midazolam, usually combined with an opioid, indicates its wide acceptance. Midazolam doses were inversely related to age. The presence of vomiting, airway obstruction, and decreased oxygen saturation underlines the importance of appropriate personnel, equipment, and monitors during sedation.
Karl, HW; Coté, CJ; McCubbin, MM; Kelley, M; Liebelt, E; Kaufman, S; Burkhart, K; Albers, G; Wasserman, G
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