Phospholipase D in TCR-Mediated Signaling and T Cell Activation.
Phospholipase D (PLD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine, the major phospholipid in the plasma membrane, to generate an important signaling lipid, phosphatidic acid. Phosphatidic acid is a second messenger that regulates vesicular trafficking, cytoskeletal reorganization, and cell signaling in immune cells and other cell types. Published studies, using pharmacological inhibitors or protein overexpression, indicate that PLD plays a positive role in TCR-mediated signaling and cell activation. In this study, we used mice deficient in PLD1, PLD2, or both to assess the function of these enzymes in T cells. Our data showed that PLD1 deficiency impaired TCR-mediated signaling, T cell expansion, and effector function during immune responses against Listeria monocytogenes; however, PLD2 deficiency had a minimal impact on T cells. Biochemical analysis indicated that PLD1 deficiency affected Akt and PKCθ activation. In addition, it impaired TCR downregulation and the secondary T cell response. Together, our results suggested that PLD1 plays an important role in T cell activation.
Zhu, M; Foreman, DP; O'Brien, SA; Jin, Y; Zhang, W
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