Association between deep sedation from continuous intravenous sedatives and extubation failures in mechanically ventilated patients in the pediatric intensive care unit
© Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group. All rights reserved. OBJECTIVE The primary objective of this study was to determine whether an association exists between deep sedation from continuous infusion sedatives and extubation failures in mechanically ventilated children. Secondary outcomes evaluated risk factors associated with deep sedation. METHODS This was a retrospective cohort study conducted between January 1, 2009, and October 31, 2012, in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) at Duke Children’s Hospital. Patients were included in the study if they had been admitted to the PICU, had been mechanically ventilated for ≥48 hours, and had received at least one continuous infusion benzodiazepine and/or opioid infusion for ≥24 hours. Patients were separated into 2 groups: those deeply sedated and those not deeply sedated. Deep sedation was defined as having at least one documented State Behavioral Scale (SBS) of −3 or −2 within 72 hours prior to planned extubation. RESULTS A total of 108 patients were included in the analysis. Both groups were well matched with regard to baseline characteristics. For the primary outcome, there was no difference in extubation failures in those who were deeply sedated compared to those not deeply sedated (14 patients [22.6%] versus 7 patients [15.2%], respectively; p = 0.33). After adjusting for potential risk factors, patients with a higher weight percentile for age (odds ratio [OR] 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-1.03), lower Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) score prior to intubation (OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.74-0.97), and larger maximum benzodiazepine dose (OR 1.93; 95% CI 1.01-3.71) were associated with greater odds of deep sedation. A higher GCS prior to intubation was significantly associated with increased odds of extubation failure (OR 1.19; 95% CI 1.02-1.39). CONCLUSIONS While there was no statistically significant difference in extubation failures between the 2 groups included in this study, considering the severe consequences of extubation failure, the numerical difference reported may be clinically important.
Schultheis, JM; Heath, TS; Turner, DA
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