Human reductive halothane metabolism in vitro is catalyzed by cytochrome P450 2A6 and 3A4.
The anesthetic halothane undergoes extensive oxidative and reductive biotransformation, resulting in metabolites that cause hepatotoxicity. Halothane is reduced anaerobically by cytochrome P450 (P450) to the volatile metabolites 2-chloro-1,1-difluoroethene (CDE) and 2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane (CTE). The purpose of this investigation was to identify the human P450 isoform(s) responsible for reductive halothane metabolism. CDE and CTE formation from halothane metabolism by human liver microsomes was determined by GC/MS analysis. Halothane metabolism to CDE and CTE under reductive conditions was completely inhibited by carbon monoxide, which implicates exclusively P450 in this reaction. Eadie-Hofstee plots of both CDE and CTE formation were nonlinear, suggesting multiple P450 isoform involvement. Microsomal CDE and CTE formation were each inhibited 40-50% by P450 2A6-selective inhibitors (coumarin and 8-methoxypsoralen) and 55-60% by P450 3A4-selective inhibitors (ketoconazole and troleandomycin). P450 1A-, 2B6-, 2C9/10-, and 2D6-selective inhibitors (7,8-benzoflavone, furafylline, orphenadrine, sulfaphenazole, and quinidine) had no significant effect on reductive halothane metabolism. Measurement of product formation catalyzed by a panel of cDNA-expressed P450 isoforms revealed that maximal rates of CDE formation occurred with P450 2A6, followed by P450 3A4. P450 3A4 was the most effective catalyst of CTE formation. Among a panel of 11 different human livers, there were significant linear correlations between the rate of CDE formation and both 2A6 activity (r = 0.64, p < 0.04) and 3A4 activity (r = 0.64, p < 0.03). Similarly, there were significant linear correlations between CTE formation and both 2A6 activity (r = 0.55, p < 0.08) and 3A4 activity (r = 0.77, p < 0.005). The P450 2E1 inhibitors 4-methylpyrazole and diethyldithiocarbamate inhibited CDE and CTE formation by 20-45% and 40-50%, respectively; however, cDNA-expressed P450 2E1 did not catalyze significant amounts of CDE or CTE production, and microsomal metabolite formation was not correlated with P450 2E1 activity. This investigation demonstrated that human liver microsomal reductive halothane metabolism is catalyzed predominantly by P450 2A6 and 3A4. This isoform selectivity for anaerobic halothane metabolism contrasts with that for oxidative human halothane metabolism, which is catalyzed predominantly by P450 2E1.
Spracklin, DK; Thummel, KE; Kharasch, ED
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