Comparison of Amsorb, sodalime, and Baralyme degradation of volatile anesthetics and formation of carbon monoxide and compound a in swine in vivo.
BACKGROUND: Consequences of volatile anesthetic degradation by carbon dioxide absorbents that contain strong base include formation of compound A from sevoflurane, formation of carbon monoxide (CO) and CO toxicity from desflurane, enflurane and isoflurane, delayed inhalation induction, and increased anesthetic costs. Amsorb (Armstrong Ltd., Coleraine, Northern Ireland) is a new absorbent that does not contain strong base and does not form CO or compound A in vitro. This investigation compared Amsorb, Baralyme (Chemetron Medical Division, Allied Healthcare Products, St. Louis, MO), and sodalime effects on CO (from desflurane and isoflurane) and compound A formation, carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) concentrations, and anesthetic degradation in a clinically relevant porcine in vivo model. METHODS: Pigs were anesthetized with desflurane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane, using fresh or partially dehydrated Amsorb, Baralyme, and new and old formulations of sodalime. Anesthetic concentrations in the fresh (preabsorber), inspired (postabsorber), and end-tidal gas were measured, as were inspired CO and compound A concentrations and blood oxyhemoglobin and COHb concentrations. RESULTS: For desflurane and isoflurane, the order of inspired CO and COHb formation was dehydrated Baralyme >> soda-lime > Amsorb. For desflurane and Baralyme, peak CO was 9,700 +/- 5,100 parts per million (ppm), and the increase in COHb was 37 +/- 14%. CO and COHb increases were undetectable with Amsorb. Oxyhemoglobin desaturation occurred with desflurane and Baralyme but not Amsorb or sodalime. The gap between inspired and end-tidal desflurane and isoflurane did not differ between the various dehydrated absorbents. Neither fresh nor dehydrated Amsorb caused compound A formation from sevoflurane. In contrast, Baralyme and sodalime caused 20-40 ppm compound A. The gap between inspired and end-tidal sevoflurane did not differ between fresh absorbents, but was Amsorb < sodalime < Baralyme with dehydrated absorbents. CONCLUSION: Amsorb caused minimal if any CO formation, minimal compound A formation regardless of absorbent hydration, and the least amount of sevoflurane degradation. An absorbent like Amsorb, which does not contain strong base or cause anesthetic degradation and formation of toxic products, may have benefit with respect to patient safety, inhalation induction, and anesthetic consumption (cost).
Kharasch, ED; Powers, KM; Artru, AA
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