Gene expression profiling of nephrotoxicity from the sevoflurane degradation product fluoromethyl-2,2-difluoro-1-(trifluoromethyl)vinyl ether ("compound A") in rats.
The major degradation product of the volatile anesthetic sevoflurane, the haloalkene fluoromethyl-2,2-difluoro-1-(trifluoromethyl)vinyl ether (FDVE or "compound A"), is nephrotoxic in rats. FDVE undergoes complex metabolism and bioactivation, which mediates the nephrotoxicity. Nevertheless, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of FDVE toxification are unknown. This investigation evaluated the gene expression profile of kidneys in rats administered a nephrotoxic dose of FDVE. Male Fischer 344 rats (five per group) received 0.25 mmol/kg intraperitoneal FDVE or corn oil (controls) and were sacrificed after 24 or 72 h. Urine output and kidney histological changes were quantified. Kidney RNA was extracted for microarray analysis using Affymetrix GeneChip Rat Expression Array 230A arrays. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed the modulation of several genes. FDVE caused significant diuresis and necrosis at 24 h, with normal urine output and evidence of tubular regeneration at 72 h. There were 517 informative genes that were differentially expressed >1.5-fold (p < 0.05) versus control at 24 h, of which 283 and 234 were upregulated and downregulated, respectively. Major classes of upregulated genes included those involved in apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response (mostly at 24 h), and regeneration and repair; downregulated genes were generally associated with transporters and intermediary metabolism. Among the quantitatively most upregulated genes were kidney injury molecule, osteopontin, clusterin, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, and TNF receptor 12, which have been associated with other forms of nephrotoxicity, and angiopoietin-like protein 4, glycoprotein nmb, ubiquitin hydrolase, and HSP70. Microarray results were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. FDVE causes rapid and brisk changes in gene expression, providing potential insights into the mechanism of FDVE toxification, and potential biomarkers for FDVE nephrotoxicity which are more sensitive than conventional measures of renal function.
Kharasch, ED; Schroeder, JL; Bammler, T; Beyer, R; Srinouanprachanh, S
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