Clinical sevoflurane metabolism and disposition. II. The role of cytochrome P450 2E1 in fluoride and hexafluoroisopropanol formation.
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane is metabolized to free fluoride and hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP). Cytochrome P450 2E1 is the major isoform responsible for sevoflurane metabolism by human liver microsomes in vitro. This investigation tested the hypothesis that P450 2E1 is predominantly responsible for sevoflurane metabolism in vivo. Disulfiram, which is converted in vivo to a selective inhibitor of P450 2E1, was used as a metabolic probe for P450 2E1. METHODS: Twenty-one patients within 30% of ideal body weight, who provided institutional review board-approved informed consent and were randomized to receive disulfiram (500 mg oral, n = 11) or nothing (control, n = 10) the night before surgery, were evaluated. All patients received sevoflurane (2.7% end-tidal, 1.3 MAC) in oxygen for 3 h after propofol induction. Thereafter, sevoflurane was discontinued, and anesthesia was maintained with propofol, fentanyl, and nitrous oxide. Blood sevoflurane concentrations during anesthesia and for 8 h thereafter were measured by gas chromatography. Plasma and urine fluoride and total (unconjugated plus glucuronidated) HFIP concentrations were measured by an ion-selective electrode and by gas chromatography, respectively, during anesthesia and for 96 h postoperatively. RESULTS: Patient groups were similar with respect to age, weight, sex, case duration, and intraoperative blood loss. The total sevoflurane dose, measured by cumulative end-tidal sevoflurane concentrations (3.7 +/- 0.1 MAC-h; mean +/- SE), total pulmonary uptake, and blood sevoflurane concentrations, was similar in both groups. In control patients, plasma fluoride and HFIP concentrations were increased compared to baseline values intraoperatively and postoperatively for the first 48 and 60 h, respectively. Disulfiram treatment significantly diminished this increase. Plasma fluoride concentrations increased from 2.1 +/- 0.3 microM (baseline) to 36.2 +/- 3.9 microM (peak) in control patients, but only from 1.7 +/- 0.2 to 17.0 +/- 1.6 microM in disulfiram-treated patients (P < 0.05 compared with control patients). Peak plasma HFIP concentrations were 39.8 +/- 2.6 and 14.4 +/- 1.1 microM in control and disulfiram-treated patients (P < 0.05), respectively. Areas under the plasma fluoride- and HFIP-time curves also were diminished significantly to 22% and 20% of control patients, respectively, by disulfiram treatment. Urinary excretion of fluoride and HFIP was similarly significantly diminished in disulfiram-treated patients. Cumulative 96-h fluoride and HFIP excretion in disulfiram-treated patient was 1,080 +/- 210 and 960 +/- 240 mumol, respectively, compared to 3,950 +/- 560 and 4,300 +/- 540 mumol in control patients (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Disulfiram, an effective P450 2E1 inhibitor, substantially decreased fluoride ion and HFIP production during and after sevoflurane anesthesia. These results suggest that P450 2E1 is a predominant P450 isoform responsible for human sevoflurane metabolism in vivo.
Kharasch, ED; Armstrong, AS; Gunn, K; Artru, A; Cox, K; Karol, MD
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