Evaluation and Management of Maternal Congenital Heart Disease: A Review.
Objective: Congenital heart defects represent the most common major congenital anomalies. The objective of this review was to define the most common forms of congenital heart disease (CHD) in pregnancy, outline preconception counseling, discuss the associated morbidity and mortality of each lesion, and review current recommendations for management of CHD in pregnancy. Evidence Acquisition: A MEDLINE search of "congenital heart disease in pregnancy" and specific conditions in pregnancy including "ventricular septal defect," "atrial septal defect," "left outflow obstruction," "right outflow obstruction," "tetralogy of Fallot," and "transposition of the great vessels" was performed. Results: The evidence included in the review contains 18 retrospective studies, 8 meta-analyses or systematic reviews or expert opinions, 5 case reports including surgical case reports, 2 prospective studies, and 2 clinical texts. Conclusions: Given advances in surgical and medical management, women with a history of congenital cardiac defects are more frequently reaching childbearing age and requiring obstetric care. Many women with CHD can have successful pregnancies, although there are a few conditions that confer significant maternal risk, and pregnancy may even be contraindicated. Appropriate care for women with CHD requires a knowledge of cardiac physiology in pregnancy, the common lesions of CHD, and coordinated care from cardiology and maternal-fetal medicine specialists.
Hopkins, MK; Goldstein, SA; Ward, CC; Kuller, JA
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