Nitrosative modifications of protein and lipid signaling molecules by reactive nitrogen species.
This review is the last of four review articles addressing covalent modifications of proteins and lipids. Two of the reviews in this series were previously published (15, 28) and dealt with modifications of signaling proteins by GlcNAcylation and serine phosphorylation. In the current issue of the Journal, we complete this series with two reviews, one by Riahi et al. (102a) on the signaling and cellular functions of 4-hydroxyalkenals, key products of lipid peroxidation processes, and our present review on the effects of nitrosative modifications of protein and lipid signaling molecules by reactive nitrogen species. The aim of this Perspectives review is to highlight the significant role that reactive nitrogen species may play in the regulation of cellular metabolism through this important class of posttranslational modification. The potential role of nitrosative modifications in the regulation of insulin signal transduction, mitochondrial energy metabolism, mRNA transcription, stress signaling, and endoplasmic reticulum function will each be discussed. Since nitrosative modifications are not restricted to proteins, the current understanding of a recently described genus of "nitro-fatty acids" will also be addressed.
White, PJ; Charbonneau, A; Cooney, GJ; Marette, A
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