Dietary iron deficiency among Russian women and children
This study evaluates the iron sufficiency of the Russian diet using data from 24-hour dietary recalls conducted in 2 rounds of a nationally representative longitudinal survey of 7,200 households. Unavailability was estimated using algorithms adjusting for enhancers (heme, vitamin C) and inhibitors (tannins, phytates) consumed concurrently with dietary iron. Only 3-4% of total iron was estimated to be bioavailable, largely as a result of concurrent phytate consumption. Deficiencies were greatest in the most vulnerable groups. The mean bioavailable intake among menstruating females (14-54 yrs) was 0.43 mg, well below the required range of 0.7-2.3 mg. These dietary data suggest that Russian women and children are at high risk of iron deficiency. Grain products, the major food source of iron, are rich in phytates, and are inefficient sources of available iron. Determinants of food choices should be explored to develop strategies for improving iron nutriture.
Mendez, M; Kohlmeier, L; Chakraborty, H; Kohlmeier, M
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