Tobacco Use, Use Disorders, and Smoking Cessation Interventions in Persons Living With HIV.
Cigarette smoking remains highly prevalent among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), estimated to be 40-75 %, and is significantly higher than what is observed among the general population. Health risks of smoking in this population include cardiovascular disease; bacterial pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and other respiratory conditions; lung cancer and other malignancies; adverse cognitive and neurological outcomes; low birth weight, preterm birth, and small-for-gestational-age infants; and overall mortality. Smokers with HIV now lose more life years to smoking than they do to the HIV itself. A majority of smokers living with HIV report being interested in cessation, and a significant proportion has made recent quit attempts. There is a general paucity of large, randomized controlled trials of smoking cessation interventions among smokers living with HIV, and among the existing research, cessation rates are suboptimal. Greater resources and effort should be allocated to developing and evaluating cessation treatment modalities for smokers living with HIV. Efforts to individualize and tailor treatments to address specific client needs and comorbidities are warranted. HIV care providers and other health professionals can play a key role in improving health among this population by regularly screening for smoking and promoting cessation.
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