Cigarette smoking and drug use among a nationally representative sample of HIV-positive individuals.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Among HIV-positive populations, the prevalence of cigarette smoking remains disproportionately high and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Little is known about this topic among HIV-positive persons in the general population. METHODS: Data came from the 2005 to 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) public use data files. Unadjusted and adjusted multinomial logistic regression analyses explored the associations between socio-demographic, drug and alcohol use, and drug and/or alcohol treatment characteristics with smoking status among HIV-positive individuals (n = 349). RESULTS: More than 40% of the sample was current smokers. In adjusted analyses, females (aRRR = .11, 95% CI = .03-.41) and participants who had never been married (aRRR = .19, 95% CI = .05-.58), were more likely to be former smokers than never smokers. Females (aRRR = .37, 95% CI = .14-.96) and individuals older than age 35 (aRRR = .37, 95% CI = .16-.89) were less likely to be current smokers than never smokers. Conversely, previously married persons (aRRR = 5.72, 95% CI = 1.40-23.31), participants reporting binge drinking (aRRR = 5.96, 95% CI = 2.27-15.64), and lifetime drug or alcohol treatment (aRRR = 5.12, 95% CI = 2.09-12.55) were more likely to be current smokers than never smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Findings help confirm the high prevalence of smoking among HIV-positive persons suggesting the need for integrated substance use and smoking cessation treatment among HIV-positives. SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: The present findings have implications for the development and implementation of targeted smoking cessation programs for HIV-positive smokers.
Pacek, LR; Harrell, PT; Martins, SS
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