Manipulation of the Geometry and Modulation of the Optical Response of Surfactant-Free Gold Nanostars: A Systematic Bottom-Up Synthesis.
Among plasmonic nanoparticles, surfactant-free branched gold nanoparticles have exhibited exceptional properties as a nanoplatform for a wide variety of applications ranging from surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensing and imaging applications to photothermal treatment and photoimmunotherapy for cancer treatments. The effectiveness and reliability of branched gold nanoparticles in biomedical applications strongly rely on the consistency and reproducibility of physical, chemical, optical, and therapeutic properties of nanoparticles, which are mainly governed by their morphological features. Herein, we present an optimized bottom-up synthesis that improves the reproducibility and homogeneity of the gold-branched nanoparticles with desired morphological features and optical properties. We identified that the order of reagent addition is crucial for improved homogeneity of the branched nature of nanoparticles that enable a high batch-to-batch reproducibility and reliability. In addition, a different combination of the synthesis parameters, in particular, additive halides and concentration ratios of reactive Au to Ag and Au to Au seeds, which yield branched nanoparticle of similar localized surface plasmon resonances but with distinguishable changes in the dimensions of the branches, was realized. Overall, our study introduces the design parameters for the purpose-tailored manufacturing of surfactant-free gold nanostars in a reliable manner.
De Silva Indrasekara, AS; Johnson, SF; Odion, RA; Vo-Dinh, T
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