Surgical treatment for spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage. Part I: Supratentorial haematomas
Spontaneous intracerebral haematoma (SICH) represents one the most severe subtypes of ictus. However, and despite a high incidence, medical treatment is almost limited to life support and to control intracranial hypertension and indications of surgical treatment are poorly defined. The aim of this paper was to review the evidence supporting surgical evacuation of SICH. Ten clinical trials and five meta-analyses studying the results of surgical treatment on this pathology were found on English literature. These studies considered all together, failed to show a significant benefit of surgical evacuation in patients with SICH considered as a whole. However, a subgroup of these patients has been considered to potentially present a better outcome after surgical treatment. Current recommendations on supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhage state that young patients with lobar haematomas causing deterioration on the level of consciousness should be operated on. Patients suffering from putaminal haematomas and fitting with the same criteria of age and neurological deterioration could also benefit from surgery, at least on terms of survival. Deep neurological deterioration with GCS<5, thalamic location, severe functional deterioration on basal condition or advanced age precluding an adequate functional outcome, have been traditionally considered criteria contraindicating surgery. Given the absence of strong scientific evidence to indicate surgery, this measure should be taken on a tailored manner, and taking into account the social-familiar environment of the patient, that will strongly condition his/her future quality of life.
Pérez-Núñez, A; Lagares, A; Pascual, B; Rivas, JJ; Alday, R; Gonzãlez, P; Cabrera, A; Lobato, RD
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