Safety and postoperative adverse events in management of acute mastoiditis in children - 30 Day NSQIP outcomes.
OBJECTIVE: To examine preoperative risk factors, postoperative 30-day outcomes and adverse events of acute mastoiditis using a national pediatric surgical database. METHODS: We explored our objectives using a cross-sectional analysis of a hospital-based reporting system database. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) pediatric database was used to identify surgical encounters for the treatment of acute mastoiditis from 2012 to 2015. Patient demographics, co-morbidities, laboratory values, surgical details, complications, and outcomes were tabulated. Linear regression was used to determine predictors of prolonged hospital stay based on pre-operative, surgical and outcome variables. RESULTS: 113 patients with acute mastoiditis were identified from with mean age of 7.8 years. Mastoidectomy was the most common index procedure performed (44; 34%). Average hospital stay length was 5.2 days. No patients died within 30 days. 4 (3.1%) patients required readmission, and 9 (6.9%) required unplanned subsequent operative procedures. Pre-operative presence of sepsis or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS; p = 0.03), and unplanned additional procedures were associated with a prolonged hospital stay (p = 0.03), but age, gender, race, and pre-operative morbidities were not (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Contemporary surgical management of acute mastoiditis in children appears to be safe. Mortality is rare and has been potentially eliminated as a complication. Rates of pre-operative systemic infection were very high, despite current antibiotic utilization trends. Opportunities for quality improvement exist to investigate how to decrease rates of preoperative sepsis, limit readmissions, and unplanned re-operations. The role of mastoidectomy appears prominent, as it was used in about two-thirds of cases. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4.
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