Factors associated with low-lying intrauterine devices: a cross-sectional ultrasound study in a cohort of African-American women.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

OBJECTIVE: The object of this study is to examine factors and symptoms associated with low-lying IUDs as defined by ultrasound. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional sub-study of participants in the Study of Environment, Life-style, and Fibroids (SELF). SELF participants had screening ultrasounds for fibroids at study enrollment; those with an IUD in place are included in this sub-study. Low-lying IUDs were identified and localized. Logistic regression was used to identify factors and symptoms associated with low-lying IUDs. RESULTS: Among 168 women with IUDs at ultrasound, 28 (17%) had a low-lying IUD. Having a low-lying IUD was associated with low education level (≤high school: aOR 3.1 95% CI 1.14-8.55) and with increased BMI (p=.002). Women with a low-lying IUD were more likely to report a "big problem" with dysmenorrhea (the highest option of the Likert scale) as compared to women with a normally-positioned IUD (OR 3.2 95% CI 1.07-9.54). CONCLUSION: Our study found that women with a low-lying IUD are more likely to be of lower education and higher BMI, and to report more dysmenorrhea. IMPLICATIONS: Women who are obese may benefit from additional counseling and closer follow-up after IUD placement. Future research is warranted to investigate IUD placement and possible IUD migration among women who are obese.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Moshesh, M; Saldana, T; Deans, E; Cooper, T; Baird, D

Published Date

  • July 2018

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 98 / 1

Start / End Page

  • 25 - 29

PubMed ID

  • 29550456

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC8523017

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1879-0518

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.contraception.2018.02.018


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States