Diet and risk of myopia in three-year-old Singapore children: the GUSTO cohort.
BACKGROUND: To investigate the relationship between dietary intakes at six, nine and 12 months and risk of myopia in three-year-old children in a birth cohort. METHODS: Three hundred and seventeen children from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) study were included. Dietary intake at six, nine and 12 months of age was ascertained using either 24-hour recalls or three-day food diaries completed by parents. Cycloplegia was achieved with three drops of one per cent cycloplentolate instilled at five minute intervals. Cycloplegic autorefraction and axial length (AL) were measured at three years of age with a table-mounted autorefractor and optical biometer, respectively. Myopia was defined as spherical equivalent (SE) of ≤ -0.50 D. Associations of dietary intake with SE, AL and myopia were examined by single dietary factor models using two multivariable regression models. Model 1 included adjusting for age, gender and total energy intake. Model 2 included additional adjustments for ethnicity, time spent outdoors, maternal education and parental myopia. RESULTS: In the single dietary factor adjusted models, dietary intakes at six, nine and 12 months were not associated with SE, AL and myopia. In model 1, protein, fat and carbohydrate intakes were not associated with SE, AL and myopia at any of the three time points (p > 0.05). In model 2, protein, fat and carbohydrate intakes were not associated with SE, AL and myopia at any of the three time points (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, there was no evidence that diet at ages six, nine and 12 months was related to SE, AL or myopia at age three years. Further prospective studies with larger sample sizes are needed to understand the influence of diet on eye development in young children.
Chua, SY-L; Sabanayagam, C; Tan, C-S; Lim, LS; Toh, J-Y; Chong, Y-S; Gluckman, PD; Yap, F; Cheng, C-Y; Ngo, CS; Wong, T-Y; Chong, MF-F; Saw, S-M; GUSTO Study Group,
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