Immunogenicity and safety of the quadrivalent meningococcal ACWY-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) in splenectomized or hyposplenic children and adolescents: Results of a phase III, open, non-randomized study.
BACKGROUND: Individuals with functional or anatomic asplenia are at high risk for meningococcal disease. We evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of 1 and 2 doses of the quadrivalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W, Y tetanus toxoid-conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) in this high-risk population. METHODS: This phase III, open-label, controlled, non-randomized study (NCT01641042) enrolled 1-17-year-olds with impaired splenic activity (high-risk group) and age-matched healthy controls (control group). We measured immune responses to MenACWY-TT by serum bactericidal activity assays using rabbit (rSBA) and human (hSBA) complement and in terms of antibodies against polysaccharides of the 4 vaccine serogroups. We evaluated vaccine response rates (VRRs) as 4-fold increases from pre-vaccination levels or titers ≥1:32 (rSBA)/≥1:8 (hSBA). We recorded solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AEs) during 4 and 31 days post-vaccination, and serious AEs (SAEs) and new onset of chronic illnesses (NOCIs) throughout the study. RESULTS: The according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity included 40 participants per group. In both groups, the first MenACWY-TT dose induced rSBA VRRs of 92.5-100% and hSBA VRRs of 55.6-77.1% across vaccine serogroups. Following the second MenACWY-TT dose, all participants had high responses, with rSBA and hSBA VRRs of 73.0-100% across vaccine serogroups. rSBA and hSBA geometric mean titers for each serogroup increased in both groups (with different magnitudes, but ≥13.1-fold) compared with baseline levels. Polysaccharide antibody concentrations ≥2.0 μg/ml were detected in ≥84.4% of participants and were similar between groups. Incidences of solicited and unsolicited AEs were comparable between groups. We recorded SAEs in 4/43 participants in the high-risk group and 1/43 participants in the control group (none vaccine-related). No NOCIs were reported. CONCLUSION: In this descriptive study, MenACWY-TT induced similar functional and humoral immune responses and had a clinically acceptable safety profile in children and adolescents with impaired splenic activity and in healthy controls.
Klein, NP; Habanec, T; Kosina, P; Shah, NR; Kolhe, D; Miller, JM; Hezareh, M; Van der Wielen, M
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