Prognostic value of contrast enhancement and FLAIR for survival in newly diagnosed glioblastoma treated with and without bevacizumab: results from ACRIN 6686.
Background: ACRIN 6686/RTOG 0825 was a phase III trial of conventional chemoradiation plus adjuvant temozolomide with bevacizumab or without (placebo) in newly diagnosed glioblastoma. This study investigated whether changes in contrast-enhancing and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR)-hyperintense tumor assessed by central reading prognosticate overall survival (OS). Methods: Two hundred eighty-four patients (171 men; median age 57 y, range 19-79; 159 on bevacizumab) had MRI at post-op (baseline) and pre-cycle 4 of adjuvant temozolomide (22 wk post chemoradiation initiation). Four central readers measured bidimensional lesion enhancement (2D-T1) and FLAIR hyperintensity at both time points. Changes from baseline to pre-cycle 4 for both markers were dichotomized (increasing vs non-increasing). Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were used for inference. Results: Adjusting for treatment, increasing 2D-T1 (n = 262, hazard ratio [HR] = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.48-2.91, P < 0.0001) and FLAIR (n = 273, HR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.26-2.41, P = 0.0008) significantly predicted worse OS. Median OS (days) was significantly shorter for patients with increasing versus non-increasing 2D-T1 for both bevacizumab (443 vs 535, P = 0.004) and placebo (526 vs 887, P = 0.001). Median OS was significantly shorter for patients with increasing versus non-increasing FLAIR for placebo (595 vs 872, P = 0.001), and trended similarly for bevacizumab (499 vs 535, P = 0.0935). Adjusting for 2D-T1 and treatment, increasing FLAIR represented significantly higher risk for death (HR = 1.59 [1.11-2.26], P = 0.01). Conclusion: Increased 2D-T1 significantly predicts worse OS in both treatment groups, implying absence of a substantial proportion of pseudoprogression 22 weeks after initiation of standard therapy. FLAIR adds value beyond 2D-T1 in predicting OS, potentially addressing the pseudoresponse effect by substratifying bevacizumab-treated patients with non-increasing 2D-T1.
Boxerman, JL; Zhang, Z; Safriel, Y; Rogg, JM; Wolf, RL; Mohan, S; Marques, H; Sorensen, AG; Gilbert, MR; Barboriak, DP
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