Prevalence, predictors and clinical outcome of residual congestion in acute decompensated heart failure.
BACKGROUND: Congestion is the main reason for hospital admission for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). A better understanding of the clinical course of congestion and factors associated with decongestion are therefore important. We studied the clinical course, predictors and prognostic value of congestion in a cohort of patients admitted for ADHF by including different indirect markers of congestion (residual clinical congestion, brain natriuretic peptides (BNP) trajectories, hemoconcentration or diuretic response). METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied the prognostic value of residual clinical congestion using an established composite congestion score (CCS) in 1572 ADHF patients. At baseline, 1528 (97.2%) patients were significantly congested (CCS ≥ 3), after 7 days of hospitalization or discharge (whichever came first), 451 (28.7%) patients were still significantly congested (CCS ≥ 3), 751 (47.8%) patients were mildly congested (CCS = 1 or 2) and 370 (23.5%) patients had no signs of residual congestion (CCS = 0). The presence of significant residual congestion at day 7 or discharge was independently associated with increased risk of re-admissions for heart failure by day 60 (HR [95%CI] = 1.88 [1.39-2.55]) and all-cause mortality by day 180 (HR [95%CI] = 1.54 [1.16-2.04]). Diuretic response provided added prognostic value on top of residual congestion and baseline predictors for both outcomes, yet gain in prognostic performance was modest. CONCLUSION: Most patients with acute decompensated heart failure still have residual congestion 7 days after hospitalization. This factor was associated with higher rates of re-hospitalization and death. Decongestion surrogates, such as diuretic response, added to residual congestion, are still significant predictors of outcomes, but they do not provide meaningful additive prognostic information.
Rubio-Gracia, J; Demissei, BG; Ter Maaten, JM; Cleland, JG; O'Connor, CM; Metra, M; Ponikowski, P; Teerlink, JR; Cotter, G; Davison, BA; Givertz, MM; Bloomfield, DM; Dittrich, H; Damman, K; Pérez-Calvo, JI; Voors, AA
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