T-cell Dysfunction in Glioblastoma: Applying a New Framework.
A functional, replete T-cell repertoire is an integral component to adequate immune surveillance and to the initiation and maintenance of productive antitumor immune responses. Glioblastoma (GBM), however, is particularly adept at sabotaging antitumor immunity, eliciting severe T-cell dysfunction that is both qualitative and quantitative. Understanding and countering such dysfunction are among the keys to harnessing the otherwise stark potential of anticancer immune-based therapies. Although T-cell dysfunction in GBM has been long described, newer immunologic frameworks now exist for reclassifying T-cell deficits in a manner that better permits their study and reversal. Herein, we divide and discuss the various T-cell deficits elicited by GBM within the context of the five relevant categories: senescence, tolerance, anergy, exhaustion, and ignorance. Categorization is appropriately made according to the molecular bases of dysfunction. Likewise, we review the mechanisms by which GBM elicits each mode of T-cell dysfunction and discuss the emerging immunotherapeutic strategies designed to overcome them. Clin Cancer Res; 24(16); 3792-802. ©2018 AACR.
Woroniecka, KI; Rhodin, KE; Chongsathidkiet, P; Keith, KA; Fecci, PE
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