Exosomes in Pancreatic Cancer: from Early Detection to Treatment.
BACKGROUND:Pancreatic cancer (PC) remains one of the most fatal forms of cancer worldwide with incidence nearly equal to mortality. This is often attributed to the fact that diagnosis is often not made until later disease stages when treatment proves difficult. Efforts have been made to reduce the mortality of PC through improvements in early screening techniques and treatments of late-stage disease. Exosomes, small extracellular vesicles involved in cellular communication, have shown promise in helping understand PC disease biology. METHODS:In this review, we discuss current studies of the role of exosomes in PC physiology, and their potential use as diagnostic and treatment tools. RESULTS:Exosomes have a role in diagnosing pancreatic cancer and in understanding tumor biology including migration, proliferation, chemoresistance, immunosuppression, cachexia and diabetes, and have a potential role in therapy for pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSIONS:Exosomal analysis is beneficial in demonstrating mechanisms behind PC growth and metastasis, immunosuppression, drug resistance, and paraneoplastic conditions. Furthermore, the use of exosomes can be beneficial in detecting early-stage PC and exosomes have potential applications as therapeutic targets.
Armstrong, EA; Beal, EW; Chakedis, J; Paredes, AZ; Moris, D; Pawlik, TM; Schmidt, CR; Dillhoff, ME
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