From diagnosis to treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: An epidemic problem for both developed and developing world.

Journal Article (Review;Journal Article)

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent primary liver malignancy and the third cause of cancer-related death in the Western Countries. The well-established causes of HCC are chronic liver infections such as hepatitis B virus or chronic hepatitis C virus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, consumption of aflatoxins and tobacco smocking. Clinical presentation varies widely; patients can be asymptomatic while symptomatology extends from right upper abdominal quadrant paint and weight loss to obstructive jaundice and lethargy. Imaging is the first key and one of the most important aspects at all stages of diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of patients with HCC. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Staging System remains the most widely classification system used for HCC management guidelines. Up until now, HCC remains a challenge to early diagnose, and treat effectively; treating management is focused on hepatic resection, orthotopic liver transplantation, ablative therapies, chemoembolization and systemic therapies with cytotocix drugs, and targeted agents. This review article describes the current evidence on epidemiology, symptomatology, diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Dimitroulis, D; Damaskos, C; Valsami, S; Davakis, S; Garmpis, N; Spartalis, E; Athanasiou, A; Moris, D; Sakellariou, S; Kykalos, S; Tsourouflis, G; Garmpi, A; Delladetsima, I; Kontzoglou, K; Kouraklis, G

Published Date

  • August 2017

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 23 / 29

Start / End Page

  • 5282 - 5294

PubMed ID

  • 28839428

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC5550777

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 2219-2840

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1007-9327

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.3748/wjg.v23.i29.5282


  • eng