Caesarean section rates in Mozambique.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


The Caesarean section (C-section) rate is used as an indicator for availability and utilization of life-saving obstetric services. The purpose of the present study was to explore changes in C-section rates between 1995 and 2011 by area, place of delivery and maternal socioeconomic factors in Mozambique.


Cross-sectional data from the Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Mozambique in 1997, 2003 and 2011 were used, including women having a live birth within 3 years prior to the survey. Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with having a C-section.


The C-section rate decreased slightly from 2.5% in 1995-1997 to 2.1% in 2001-2003 and then increased to 4.7% in 2009-2011. In 2009-2011, C-section rates ranged in urban areas from 4.6% in the northern region to 12.2% in the southern region and in rural areas from 1.6% in the northern region to 3.9% in the southern region. 12.3% of the richest women had had a C-section, compared to 1.7% of the poorest women. C-sections were the most common at public hospitals (12.6% in 2009-2011), but C-sections at health centers increased from the second to the third period. The likelihood of having a C-section was associated with living in urban areas and in the southern region, having a formal education and living in a rich household, even adjusting for age and parity (and study periods). The strongest relationship was for the richest household wealth quintile [OR (95% CI): 9.8 (6.3-15.3)]. The highest rate (20.6%) was found among the richest women giving birth at public hospitals in the southern region in 2009-2011.


In Mozambique, underuse of C-section was likely among the poor and in rural areas, but overuse in the most advantaged groups seemed to be emerging.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Long, Q; Kempas, T; Madede, T; Klemetti, R; Hemminki, E

Published Date

  • October 2015

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 15 /

Start / End Page

  • 253 -

PubMed ID

  • 26459290

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC4603730

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1471-2393

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1471-2393

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1186/s12884-015-0686-x


  • eng