PHYD prevents secondary dormancy establishment of seeds exposed to high temperature and is associated with lower PIL5 accumulation.
Dormancy cycling controls the seasonal conditions under which seeds germinate, and these conditions strongly influence growth and survival of plants. Several endogenous and environmental signals affect the dormancy status of seeds. Factors such as time, light, and temperature influence the balance between abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA), two phytohormones that play a key role in seed dormancy and germination. High temperatures have been shown to increase ABA level and prevent seed germination, a process known as thermoinhibition. High temperature can also cause the acquisition of secondary dormancy, preventing germination of seeds upon their return to favorable germination conditions. The mechanisms and conditions linking thermoinhibition and secondary dormancy remain unclear. Phytochromes are photoreceptors known to promote seed germination of many plant species including Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we demonstrate a role for PHYD in modulating secondary dormancy acquisition in seeds exposed to high temperature. We found that a functional PHYD gene is required for the germination of seeds that experienced high temperature, and that ABA- and GA-related gene expression during and after pre-incubation at high temperatures was altered in a phyD mutant. We further show that the level of PHYD mRNA increased in seeds pre-incubated at high temperature and that this increase correlates with efficient removal of the germination repressor PIL5.
Martel, C; Blair, LK; Donohue, K
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