Investigational therapies for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.
(Journal Article;Review;Systematic Review)
IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is currently the most effective adjuvant intravesical agent at preventing disease recurrence and the only therapy shown to inhibit disease progression in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). However, recurrence rates as high as 30% and significant local/systemic toxicity have resulted in an increased interest in the use of alternative intravesical agents. AREAS COVERED IN THE REVIEW: Our aim is to discuss recent clinical trial evidence utilizing novel intravesical agents for treatment of NMIBC. A systematic literature review was performed via the National Center for Biotechnology Information databases to identify pertinent studies from 2000-2009. WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN: A durable response has been demonstrated with alternative agents in patients refractory to or intolerant of BCG. This review compares the merits and shortcomings of these emerging agents, focusing on clinical trial safety and efficacy results. TAKE HOME MESSAGE: Despite recent enthusiasm for novel agents, radical cystectomy remains the treatment of choice for patients with NMIBC who have failed intravesical therapy. However, evidence is accumulating that novel agents provide an efficacious alternative in patients refractory or intolerable to BCG or unfit for cystectomy. Further randomized prospective data are required to demonstrate a recurrence- and progression-free benefit compared with BCG.
Smaldone, MC; Casella, DP; Welchons, DR; Gingrich, JR
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