Cerivastatin Nanoliposome as a Potential Disease Modifying Approach for the Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
In this study we investigated nanoliposome as an approach to tailoring the pharmacology of cerivastatin as a disease-modifying drug for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Cerivastatin encapsulated liposomes with an average diameter of 98 ± 27 nm were generated by a thin film and freeze-thaw process. The nanoliposomes demonstrated sustained drug-release kinetics in vitro and inhibited proliferation of pulmonary artery (PA) smooth muscle cells with significantly less cellular cytotoxicity as compared with free cerivastatin. When delivered by inhalation to a rat model of monocrotaline-induced PAH, cerivastatin significantly reduced PA pressure from 55.13 ± 9.82 to 35.56 ± 6.59 mm Hg (P < 0.001) and diminished PA wall thickening. Echocardiography showed that cerivastatin significantly reduced right ventricle thickening (monocrotaline: 0.34 ± 0.02 cm vs. cerivastatin: 0.26 ± 0.02 cm; P < 0.001) and increased PA acceleration time (monocrotaline: 13.98 ± 1.14 milliseconds vs. cerivastatin: 21.07 ± 2.80 milliseconds; P < 0.001). Nanoliposomal cerivastatin was equally effective or slightly better than cerivastatin in reducing PA pressure (monocrotaline: 67.06 ± 13.64 mm Hg; cerivastatin: 46.31 ± 7.64 mm Hg vs. liposomal cerivastatin: 37.32 ± 9.50 mm Hg) and improving parameters of right ventricular function as measured by increasing PA acceleration time (monocrotaline: 24.68 ± 3.92 milliseconds; cerivastatin: 32.59 ± 6.10 milliseconds vs. liposomal cerivastatin: 34.96 ± 7.51 milliseconds). More importantly, the rate and magnitude of toxic cerivastatin metabolite lactone generation from the intratracheally administered nanoliposomes was significantly lower as compared with intravenously administered free cerivastatin. These studies show that nanoliposome encapsulation improved in vitro and in vivo pharmacologic and safety profile of cerivastatin and may represent a safer approach as a disease-modifying therapy for PAH.
Lee, Y; Pai, SB; Bellamkonda, RV; Thompson, DH; Singh, J
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)