Cross-Plane Carrier Transport in Van der Waals Layered Materials.
The mechanisms of carrier transport in the cross-plane crystal orientation of transition metal dichalcogenides are examined. The study of in-plane electronic properties of these van der Waals compounds has been the main research focus in recent years. However, the distinctive physical anisotropies, short-channel physics, and tunability of cross layer interactions can make the study of their electronic properties along the out-of-plane crystal orientation valuable. Here, the out-of-plane carrier transport mechanisms in niobium diselenide and hafnium disulfide are explored as two broadly different representative materials. Temperature-dependent current-voltage measurements are preformed to examine the mechanisms involved. First principles simulations and a tunneling model are used to understand these results and quantify the barrier height and hopping distance properties. Using Raman spectroscopy, the thermal response of the chemical bonds is directly explored and the insight into the van der Waals gap properties is acquired. These results indicate that the distinct cross-plane carrier transport characteristics of the two materials are a result of material thermal properties and thermally mediated transport of carriers through the van der Waals gaps. Exploring the cross-plane electron transport, the exciting physics involved is unraveled and potential new avenues for the electronic applications of van der Waals layers are inspired.
Najmaei, S; Neupane, MR; Nichols, BM; Burke, RA; Mazzoni, AL; Chin, ML; Rhodes, DA; Balicas, L; Franklin, AD; Dubey, M
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