Risk Groups for Cardiovascular Disease in a Multiethnic Group of Midlife Women
© 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses Objective: To identify the clusters of midlife women by cardiovascular symptoms to identify high‐risk groups and to examine racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular symptoms in each cluster. Design: A secondary analysis of the data from two national Internet survey studies. Setting: Internet communities/groups for midlife women and Internet communities/groups for ethnic minorities including African Americans, Hispanics, and Asian Americans. Sample: The data from multiethnic groups of 1,054 midlife women in the two national Internet survey studies. Methods: Only the data from the questions on background characteristics, perceived health, menopausal status, and the Cardiovascular Symptom Index for Midlife Women were used for this secondary analysis. The data were analyzed using factor analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and multinomial logistic analysis. Results: Forty‐five percent of the participants were categorized into Cluster 1 (high vasomotor symptoms and low cardiorespiratory symptoms); more than 38% were categorized into Cluster 2 (low vasomotor symptoms, high cardiorespiratory symptoms, and high discomfort/pain), and more than16% were categorized into Cluster 3 (high discomfort/pain and high indigestion symptoms). Those who were not African American, had insufficient family income, had a diagnosed disease, and had no access to health care were at risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Cluster 1 represented another unique risk group within midlife women because high vasomotor symptoms could be associated with high CVD risks. There were significant differences in age, family income, ethnicity, self‐reported health, and menopausal status among the clusters (p <.05). Also, there were significant racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular symptoms in each cluster (p <.01). Conclusion/Implications for Nursing Practice: Although the risk groups need to be confirmed with further studies, the findings specifically indicate certain characteristics of midlife women that need to be considered and targeted in future preventive and/or treatment interventions for CVDs. Thus, health care providers need to consider these characteristics of midlife women in their future preventive and/or treatment interventions.
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)