Polarized Exosome Release from the Retinal Pigmented Epithelium.
The retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) forms the outer blood-retinal barrier and provides nutrients and recycling of visual pigment to the photoreceptors, among many other functions. The RPE is also a key site of pathophysiological changes in age-related macular degeneration, making it an important focus of study in both visual health and disease. Exosomes are nanometer-sized vesicles that are released by cells in a controlled fashion and mediate a range of extra- and intercellular activities. Some key exosome actions include cell-cell communication, immune modulation, extracellular matrix turnover, stem cell division/differentiation, neovascularization, and cellular waste removal. While much is known about their role in cancer and cardiovascular disease, exosome function in the many specialized tissues of the eye is just beginning to undergo rigorous study. Here we review current knowledge of the functions and roles of exosomes and other small extracellular vesicles released from the RPE. In particular, we discuss the potential role and importance of polarized exosome release from the RPE.
Klingeborn, M; Stamer, WD; Bowes Rickman, C
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